From the very beginning the Ulugbek madrasah was the main religious institution of Samarkand, its unique university in the Middle Ages. Originally the madrasah had 50 hujras (cells), which served as a dwelling for more than one hundred students.
The dimensions of the Ulugbek madrasah (81 x51 m, courtyard - 30x30 m) made it comparable with the largest imperial structures of Timur. The main facade of the madrasah faces the square and consists of a portal, two minarets and connecting walls, above which rise the majestic domes of the classrooms.
The decor of the outer and inner facades is rich and diverse. A mosaic panel above the entrance arch is particularly effective since it symbolically represents the stylized stellar sky. By the beginning of the 20th century, the madrasah had been severely destroyed. Restoration works were conducted in 1930-1990.